numerals

Numerals are adjectives that can head a counting clause & are not necessarily subject to grammatical
agreement.

As a grammatical category, **Numerals** is not merely a semantic grouping of number terms, but is more generally a
grouping of terms indicating quantity or degree that have similar syntactic behaviors.

At first glance, semantic numbers can function syntactically like adjectives; in that sense, it could be said
that they belong to the **Adjective** grammatical category.

الطلّاب

the-students

الزغار

the-young

the young students

the five students

the fifth student

However, as a grammatical category, **Numerals** are defined by their ability to instantiate
the so-called **counting structure** (**هيكل العدّ**). Although all these terms are classified only as **Numerals**
for simplicity, it should be kept in mind that they are always viably **Adjectives** as well.

five students

the fifth student

Although this structure is referred to as defining of **Numerals**, **elative adjectives** — like semantic **numerals**
— may be used both as **attributive adjectives** & as the head term of the **counting structure** as well.
Since they share all the features of semantic **numerals**, **elative adjectives** are likewise classified as
**Numerals** — keeping in mind that all **Numerals** are always viably **Adjectives** as well.

the smartest student

the smartest student

In one sense, **elative adjectives** are a type of **ordinal number**; while the canonical **ordinal
numbers** refer to an endpoint in a numerical sequence (e.g. "the fifth"), **elative adjectives** have
their endpoint in a
qualitative maximum (e.g. "the smartest").

Although the number of non-compound numbers is
finite, the grammatical category of **Numerals** is considered an open category insofar as it contains the **elative**
forms of all **Adjectives**.

**Cardinal Numbers** may be grouped in the following sets:

**1**–**10****11**–**19**- multiples of
**10**(i.e.**20**,**30**...**90**) **صفر**("zero"),**ميّة**("hundred"),**ألف**("thousand") &**مليون**("million")

Alongside all terms ending in **ة (-e)**, the sets of **3-10** & **11-19** are the only terms in
Palestinian Arabic with **construct forms**. Meanwhile,
**واحد (wāħad)** & **ثنين (tnēn)** are the only two numbers with **gendered forms** rather than **construct
forms**.

All other cardinal numbers are built from these sets & are thus not indexed independently.

**Ordinal Numbers** are limited only to the first ten positions, with an additional term for the final
position; there is no productive way to form higher ordinals.

Although the **elative** forms of all **Adjectives** fall within this category, they are not
individually recorded as distinct lemmas unless they are not related to any **positive** form — with the
exception of the analytic elativizer **أكتر (ʔaktar)**.

أكتر

most

إشي بتحبّ تسوّيه

something you like to do

the thing you like to do the most

أكثر

(elative form of كثير) more

أحسن

better

أفضل

better, more preferable

coming soon

أدنى

lowest

coming soon