verbs
Verbs are subject to person agreement with the sentence subject. They have tense & mood. Every sentence has one.

Copulae

the Stative Copula

In Arabic, a null copula is used to define the state of a subject; this is the stative copula. Since the stative copula is not an overt verb, these sentences are usually referred to as nominal sentences, in contrast to verbal sentences. Because the null copula doesn't convey information about the grammatical person of the subject, an overt subject is required.

بروحو
3P.go
they go

However, because a stative copula may be modified by auxiliaries, copulae may actually be present in what appear to be verbal sentences. It is therefore better to distinguish all sentences with copulae as copular sentences; so-called nominal sentences are simply copular sentences that happen to be unmodified.

كانو
3P.were
(be)
مبسوطين
P.happy
they were happy
كانو
3P.were
يروحو
3P.go
they were going

As in the foregoing sentence, the stative copula may be modified by an aspectual verb to indicate the stability of a state over time. While the unmarked كان (kān) indicates a static state, terms like صار (ṣār) & بطّل (baṭṭal) indicate the beginning & end of a state, respectively; other aspectual verbs exist as well. As usual, verbal auxiliaries agree with the subject.

صارو
3P.became
(be)
مبسوطين
P.happy
they became happy
بطّلو
3P.ceased
(be)
مبسوطين
P.happy
they ceased being happy

Negation always acts upon the first overt word in a verbal phrase, whether it be a verbal auxiliary or a verbal complement (see the Existential Copula) — skipping over the null copula if possible. If the verbal phrase only contains a null copula, the negative particle مش (miš) is produced.

مش
(nominal negation particle) is not
مـ
not
بروحو
3P.go
ـش
not
they don't go
they weren't happy
مـ
not
كانو
3P.were
ـش
not
يروحو
3P.go
they weren't going

the Existential Copula

An existential copula that indicates the existence of something may be formed by following a null copula with a copular complement, namely a preposition with a definite, cliticized referent.

In Palestinian Arabic, the default copular complement is the expletive فيه (fīh), a frozen particle that is never inflected. Etymologically meaning "in-it", its function is similar to "there" in the English "there is".

there is cheese
فيه
(existential expletive) there is

While the use of the expletive is not too dissimilar from English, a handful of true prepositions may act as copular complements as well, providing an existential meaning without the need for an expletive.

there is cheese on it

If the same prepositional phrase were to appear after the noun, however, it would not be a copular complement; the expletive would be necessary to create the existential meaning.

As mentioned above, a copular complement must have a cliticized referent; it cannot be a standalone noun.

When a copular complement other than the expletive is used, the topic may be definite. This, however, rules out purely existential interpretations in favor of possessive ones.

there is a book / it has a book (in it)
it has the book (in it)

In theory, there is no limit to the amount of copular complements in an existential copula, although in most cases having multiple referents would be nonsensical. However, the expletive فيه (fīh) — being unspecific about its referent — may always be used in conjunction with other copular complements. While it does not add any meaning, it underlines the indefiniteness of the topic; indeed, it may only be used if the topic is indefinite.

Because an existential copula is fundamentally an impersonal verb that has no subject but rather a referent that is necessarily undefined, verbal auxiliaries that modify it are never inflected.

there was cheese
there was cheese on it

Aside from فيه (fīh), the remaining copular complements convey more or less possessive meanings by situating the existence of something at the possessor's location.

she has the keys with her
عنده
to have
إله
to have (inalienably); to own
معه
to have (at hand)

Additional idiomatic verbs may be built from these copular complements.

إله عليه
to be owed by

Sometimes, the existential copula may be preceded by what appears to be a subject: the semantic possessor. However, the subject is actually undefined; the preceding noun is a topic. We see this, firstly, in that this false subject may never succeed the verb — contrary to the norm in an SVO language like Arabic.

مريم
Maryam
(be)
عندها
at-her
شغل
work
Maryam has work
(be)
عندها
at-her
مريم
Maryam
شغل
work
??? she has Maryam work

Secondly, in that verbal auxiliaries are never inflected according to this false subject.

the salad had cheese on it
الشنتة
DEF-bag
كان
was
(be)
فيها
in-it.F
موزة
banana
the bag had a banana in it
فيّه
to have (in), to contain
عليه
to have (on)

When true prepositions act as copular complements — especially without the expletive — they function very similarly to true pseudo-verbs. Because copular complements must have a definite referent in the form of a clitic, they appear as though always conjugated. Negation may act upon them. Moreover, their possessive meanings make them semantically like transitive verbs. Although these copular complements are categorized in the Dictionary as pseudo-verbs for the sake of practicality, they are a distinct category of terms.

Negation always acts upon the first — & only the first — overt word in a verbal phrase, whether it be a verbal auxiliary or a verbal complement. When the particle فيه (fīh) is negated, it undergoes a sound change that shortens its phonemically long final vowel. Likewise, إله (ʔilo) loses its initial glottal stop.

pseudo-verbs

Alongside etymological verbs, a few other terms in Palestinian Arabic have been grammaticalized as verbs. What these pseudo-verbs have in common is that — unlike etymological verbs — they are conjugated using clitic pronouns rather than by way of inflectional morphology.

It should be noted that verbal prepositions are categorized here as pseudo-verbs. However, at heart they are prepositions used to form possessive copulae, which are only reanalyzed as pseudo-verbs when all other elements of the underlying structure are null; they are therefore subject to major restrictions as pseudo-verbs, including the fact that they cannot be directly modified by auxiliaries.

In general, the grammaticalization of pseudo-verbs is visible in that they may be modified by auxiliaries that agree with the semantic agent rather than with the pseudo-verb itself.

مريم
Maryam
كانت
3F.was
تحكي
3F.speaks
Maryam was speaking
مريم
Maryam
كانت
3F.was
بدّها
3F.want
ميّ
water
Maryam wanted water
مريم
Maryam
كانت
3F.was
شكلها
3F.seems
زعلانة
F.upset
Maryam seemed upset

Having said that, the fact that auxiliaries may be used uninflected is a testament to the origin of pseudo-verbs & evidence of their incomplete grammaticalization.

مريم
Maryam
كان
was
بدّها
3F.want
ميّ
water
Maryam wanted water
مريم
Maryam
كان
was
شكلها
3F.seems
زعلانة
F.upset
Maryam seemed upset

Similarly, verbal prepositions must be modified by an uninflected auxiliary due to the underlying syntax of the possessive copula; here, they are not pseudo-verbs.

مريم
Maryam
كان
was
عندها
3F.has
سيّارة
a car
Maryam had a car

With the single exception of شكله (šiklo), all pseudo-verbs may be directly negated. However, verbal prepositions in the possessive copula are not; instead, negation attaches to the head of the highest verbal phrase.

مـ
not
بدّي
1S.want
ـش
not
ايّاه
M.it
I don't want it
مـ
not
عندي
1S.have
ـش
not
سيّارة
a car
I don't have a car
I don't have a car

With regard to بدّه (biddo), it is a transitive verb that requires an object. Note that the interference of the clitic pronoun always forces the direct object onto the ايّا (yyā-) affix.

بدّي
1S.want
ايّاه
M.it
I want it

With regard to شكله (šiklo "to seem"), it is a raising verb that raises a constituent to the subject position; if clause-initial, it may refer to a null subject as well.

السيّارة
the-car
شكلها
3F.seems
جديدة
F.new
the car seems new
شكله
3M.seems
السيّارة
the-car
جديدة
F.new
it seems the car is new

In the case of the null-subject construction, the tense of the predicate is flexible. However, the tense of شكله (šiklo) itself applies to the entire subordinate clause, so the double-marking of tense would be perceived as either redundant or semantically confusing.

شكله
3M.seems
السيّارة
the-car
كانت
3F.was
جديدة
F.new
it seems the car was new
كان
was
شكله
3M.seems
السيّارة
the-car
جديدة
F.new
it seemed the car was new

pseudo-verbs

بدّه
to want
شكله
to seem

auxiliaries

aspectual

coming soon
coming soon
coming soon
coming soon
coming soon

In Arabic, many intransitive verbs have causative counterparts. However, the causative auxiliary خلّى (xalla) may be used analytically in cases where causative forms don't exist.

causative

coming soon
Syntax
Inflection

Verbs follow person agreement, which by extension means they follow gender & number agreement.

Palestinian Arabic features two morphologically distinct tenses — the Present Tense & the Past Tense — & two morphologically distinct moods — the Subjunctive & the Imperative, in addition to the Indicative.

Syntax
Valence

Arabic verbs fall into three broad types according to the number & type of arguments they take & the semantic role of the subject: isPatient, noPatient, & hasObject verbs, each of which is divided into sub-categories.

noPatient

noPatient verbs are terms that have no Patient. Since isPatient verbs are intransitive (they have no Object), Unergative verbs refers specifically to unergative terms with no Object, which, by virtue of not being themselves the Patient, have no Patient at all. Stative verbs are the remaining intransitive terms that have no Agent (i.e. they are semantically adjectives).

Unergative
isAgent → !hasObject → !hasPatient
قعد
ʔaʕad
he sat
حكا
ħakā
له
-lo
he told him
Stative   
!isAgent → !hasObject → !hasPatient
hasObject

hasObject verbs are terms that have an Object. Since all of these terms are transitive, the Transitive category refers to all transitive terms that don’t fall into any of the remaining categories. Causative terms are those whose Object is caused to carry out an intransitive action (its Intransitive counterpart). Dative terms are those whose Object is the dative-marked Object of an intransitive action (its Intransitive counterpart).

Transitive
isAgent → hasObject
ضربـ
ḍarab
ـه
-o
he hit him
Causative 
isAgent → hasObject
قعّد
ʔaʕʕad
ه
-o
he made him sit
زعّلـ
zaʕʕal
ـه
-o
he made him angry
Dative    
isAgent → hasObject
حاكا
ħākā
ه
-(h)
he spoke to him
isPatient

isPatient verbs are terms whose grammatical Subject is the Patient of the action. Passive verbs have a Transitive counterpart, whereas Unaccusative terms do not. The Subject of Reflexive & Reciprocal terms is the Agent itself; what distinguishes Reciprocal terms is that they have a Dative counterpart. Note that Passive verbs are also unaccusative, grammatically speaking; Reflexive & Reciprocal terms are not.

Unaccusative
!isAgent → !hasObject → isPatient → !isObject
زعل
ziʕil
he became angry
Passive     
!isAgent → !hasObject → isPatient → isObject
انضرب
nḍarab
he was hit
Reflexive   
isAgent → !hasObject → isPatient → isObject
تحمّم
tħammam
he bathed (himself)
Reciprocal  
isAgent → !hasObject → isPatient → isDative
تقاتلو
tʔātalu
they fought (each other)
Transitive
ضربو الشباب
Passive
الشباب انضربو
Transitive
حمّم الولاد
Reflexive
الولاد تحمّمو
Unergative
بحكيله
Dative
بحاكيه
Unergative
شرب قهوة
Causative
شرّبنا قهوة